Novel coronavirus pneumonia is acute infectious pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus that is not previously identified by humans. It is a 2019 novel coronavirus. On February 7, 2020, the National Health Commission decided to include “novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia.” Tentatively named “novel coronavirus pneumonia” or “new coronavirus pneumonia,” the World Health Organization (WHO) on February 11 called it “new coronavirus pneumonia. The English name is Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Based on current epidemiological investigations, the incubation period is 1-14 days, mostly 3-7 days. The incubation period is infectious, and asymptomatic infected persons may also be the source of infection, and the population is generally susceptible.
The main route of transmission is transmitted through respiratory droplets and close touching. Since novel coronaviruses can be isolated in feces and urine, attention should be paid to aerosol or touch transfer from environmental contamination of feces and urine. Aerosol transmission is possible through prolonged exposure to high aerosol concentrations in relatively closed environments. Confined, unventilated areas may take the risk of aerosol transmission and require enhanced prevention and isolation.
- Fever, fatigue, and dry cough are the primary manifestations.
- Few patients have symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, and diarrhea.
- In some cases, dyspnea and hypoxemia often need one week to show the symptoms. In some cases, some signs have rapid progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome, and Septic shock, uncorrectable metabolic acidosis and coagulopathy, and multiple organ failure.
- Patients infected with coronavirus usually get pneumonia and develop a dry cough, headache, fever, fatigue, and progressive dyspnea. Some patients have mild symptoms at first and do not form a fever. Pneumonia associated with novel coronavirus infection is generally treatable. Most patients have a mild to moderate illness and a good prognosis, but a few are critically ill and may even die.
- Wash your hands frequently
After food preparation; after coughing or sneezing; when caring for the sick; before and after eating; when hands are dirty; when handling Wash hands with soap, alcohol-containing hand sanitizer, and water immediately after an animal or animal excrement.
- Proactive Protection
When coughing or sneezing on your own, cover your nose and mouth thoroughly with a tissue or cuff or bend your elbow and immediately throw the used tissue in the closed Trash cans and wash hands. Susceptible people should avoid crowded public places and may wear masks to reduce the risk of exposure to pathogens. Avoid close contact with patients or touching their eyes, mouth, and nose without protection. At the same time, keep the windows of home and workplace open and ventilated, and the environment clean.
- Avoid close touch
Avoid close, unprotected touching farmed or wild animals; avoid touching sick animals and spoiled meat. Avoid touching stray animals and wastewater in the fresh market.
- Good Habits Of Eating
Cook meat and eggs thoroughly for consumption, wash hands between handling raw and cooked foods, and keep cutting boards and knives separate.
- Don’t often go out
Another important thing is to avoid going to crowded places and avoiding close touch with anyone who has cold or flu-like symptoms.
- Wear a medical-surgical mask or N95 mask when going out for medical treatment and on public transport.
- Prepare standard supplies, such as thermometer, disposable masks, and household disinfection supplies.
- Nutritional care, avoiding a varied diet, and ensuring a variety of food, especially fresh vegetables and fruits.
- Adopt good eating habits, eat on time and in quantity, and avoid overeating.
- Exercise actively to control your weight. Also, moderate exercise helps boost the immune system.
- Abstaining from smoking and limiting alcohol.
- Have enough sleep, resting, and avoiding late nights.
- Focus on mental health and attention to tension relief and stress reduction.
The main routes of transmission of novel coronavirus infection are close human-to-human touch and respiratory droplet transmission, with a few aerosols. Therefore, the most effective way to prevent the spread of the new coronavirus is to stay home and have no touch with people. If you need to go out, you must wear a medical mask, and the distance between you and people should be farther than 1.5-2 meters, which can effectively prevent the spread of the virus—droplet transmission and close touch transmission. If you are a health care worker or community worker wearing a mask, you must choose the N95 mask and medical supplies that can effectively prevent the virus from spreading. Surgical masks, as well as gloves and protective eyewear, can be useful in avoiding neo-coronavirus infection. The general public should wash their hands frequently, wear masks, and disinfect their home.